What if Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Nelson Mandela and Jurgen Habermas had a conversation on what it means to be a human being? This book synthesizes the depiction of human nature in relation to (anti)capitalisms and (anti)narcissisms in the work of Mahatma Gandhi (Moksha), Malcolm X (Islam), Nelson Mandela (Ubuntu), and Jurgen Habermas (Communicative Action/Critical Theory). Understandings of what it means to be a human being and the purpose of life vary from one philosophy to another, and yet have a bearing on contemporary issues. The reader is invited to assess the philosophies with regard to conceptually and life affirming philosophies of human nature when placed in the context of (anti)narcissisms and (anti)capitalisms. Also examined are the theories of education in the works Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Nelson Mandela, and Jurgen Habermas. To teach toward a fuller and meaningful humanity requires an analysis and understanding of the many traditions that contribute to humankind, including the non-western. The classroom offers unheralded opportunities for students and educators to be knowledgeable about different cultures, peoples, and ways of being. (Anti)Narcissisms and (Anti)Capitalisms will be of interest to researchers, educators, students, peace activists, philosophers of education, and those working in the humanities. Mark Malisa Formerly of Northeastern University, Boston: Massachusetts, United States of AmericaHowever, it is not violence for the sake of violence. lust as ubuntu is built on the question or attempt to define what it means to be a human being, satyagraha, also attempts to answer that question, but from an Hindi perspective. In ubuntu, oneanbsp;...
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