Basic Structures of ComputersComputer types : functional units : input unit, memory unit, arithmetic and logic unit, output unit, control unit; basic operational concepts : bus structures : performance : processor clock, basic performance equation, pipelining and superscalar operation, clock rate, performance measurement; multiprocessors and multicomputers : historical perspective : the first generation, the second generation, the third generation, the fourth generation, beyond the fourth generation, evolution of performanceMachine Instructions and ProgramsNumbers, arithmetic operations and characters, memory locations and addresses : byte addressability, big-endian and little-endian assignments, word alignment, accessing numbers, characters and character strings, memory operation : instructions and instruction sequencing : register transfer notation , assembly language notation, basic instruction types, instruction execution and straight-line sequencing, branching, condition codes, generating memory addresses, addressing modes, implementation of variables and constants, indirection and pointers, indexing and arrays, relative addressing , additional modes, assembly language :assembler directives, number notation; basic input/output operations: stacks a queues :subroutines : subroutine nesting and processor stack, parameter passing, the stack frame : additional instructions : logic instructions, shift and rotate instructions, multiplication and division, encoding of machine instruction : general features of CISC and RISCInput/Output Organisation Accessing I/O Devices : interrupts : interrupt hardware, enabling and disabling interrupts, handling multiple devices, controlling device requests, exceptions, direct memory access: bus arbitration; buses :synchronous bus, asynchronous bus, interface circuits : serial port, standard I/O interfaces, PCI bus, SCSI bus, USBThe Memory System Some basic concepts : semiconductor RAM memories : internal organisation of memory chips, static memories, asynchronous DRAMs, structure of larger memories, memory system considerations, RAM bus memory; read only memories, ROM, PROM, EPROM , EEPROM, flash memory; speed, size and cost : cache memories :mapping functions : performance considerations :interleaving, hit rate and miss penalty, virtual memories : address translation : secondary storage : magnetic hard disks, optical disks.ArithmeticAddition and subtraction of signed numbers : addition / subtraction logic unit; design of fast adders : carry - lookahead addition; multiplication of positive numbers : signed operand multiplication; booth's algorithm; fast multiplication : bit-pair recoding of multipliers; integer division : floating point numbers and operations : IEEE standard for floating-point numbers implementing floating-point operations.Basic Processing UnitSome Fundamental concepts : register transfers, performing an arithmetic or logic operation, fetching a word from memory, storing a word in memory, execution of a complete instruction :branch instruction; multiple bus organisaton : hardwired control : A complete processor; microprogrammed control : microinstruction, microprogram sequencing, microinstruction with next-address field.Embedded SystemsExamples of embedded systems : microwave oven, digital camera, home telemetry; processor chips for embedded applications : a simple microcontrollerMnemonic and Description Instruction Code LOGIC NOT = Invert 76543210 76543210 76543210 76543210 | 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 w | mod 0 1 0 rim \ SHUSAL = Shift Logical/Arithmetic Lett | 1 1 0 1 0 0 v w | mod 1 0 0 r/maquot;] SHR = Shift Logical Right anbsp;...

Title | : | Computer Organisation |

Author | : | D.A.Godse A.P.Godse |

Publisher | : | Technical Publications - 2007-01-01 |

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