It is generally believed that most of the matter in the universe is dark, i.e. cannot be detected from the light which it emits (or fails to emit). Its presence is inferred indirectly from the motions of astronomical objects, specifically stellar, galactic, and galaxy cluster/supercluster observations. It is also required in order to enable gravity to amplify the small fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background enough to form the large-scale structures that we see in the universe today. For each of the stellar, galactic, and galaxy cluster/supercluster observations the basic principle is that if we measure velocities in some region, then there has to be enough mass there for gravity to stop all the objects flying apart. Dark matter has important consequences for the evolution of the universe and the structure within it. According to general relativity, the universe must conform to one of three possible types: open, flat, or closed. The total amount of mass and energy in the universe determines which of the three possibilities applies to the universe. In the case of an open universe, the total mass and energy density (denoted by the Greek letter A) is less than unity. If the universe is closed, A is greater than unity. For the case where A is exactly equal to one the universe is qflatq. This new book details leading-edge research from around the globe.2.3 Phase diagram on the temperature-density plane We will present the phase diagram in the three-flavor case under two conditions : the chemical equilibrium condition (CEC) fiu a MD a Ms and the charge neutral condition withoutanbsp;...
|Author||:||J. Val Blain|
|Publisher||:||Nova Publishers - 2006|