MostMOEAsuseadistancemetricorothercrowdingmethodinobjectivespaceinorder to maintain diversity for the non-dominated solutions on the Pareto optimal front. By ensuring diversity among the non-dominated solutions, it is possible to choose from a variety of solutions when attempting to solve a speci?c problem at hand. Supposewehavetwoobjectivefunctionsf (x)andf (x).Inthiscasewecande?ne 1 2 thedistancemetricastheEuclideandistanceinobjectivespacebetweentwoneighboring individuals and we thus obtain a distance given by 2 2 2 d (x, x )= f (x )?f (x )] + f (x )?f (x )] . (1) 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 f wherex andx are two distinct individuals that are neighboring in objective space. If 1 2 2 2 the functions are badly scaled, e.g. ?f (x)] ?f (x)], the distance metric can be 1 2 approximated to 2 2 d (x, x )? f (x )?f (x )] . (2) 1 2 1 1 1 2 f Insomecasesthisapproximationwillresultinanacceptablespreadofsolutionsalong the Pareto front, especially for small gradual slope changes as shown in the illustrated example in Fig. 1. 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 f 1 Fig.1.Forfrontswithsmallgradualslopechangesanacceptabledistributioncanbeobtainedeven if one of the objectives (in this casef ) is neglected from the distance calculations. 2 As can be seen in the ?gure, the distances marked by the arrows are not equal, but the solutions can still be seen to cover the front relatively well.We tested the system on two classes of problems often associated with ADFs, namely the Boolean even n-parity and the Lawnmower problems. The even-n- parity problem takes n Boolean arguments and returns true if an even number of theanbsp;...
|Title||:||Genetic And Evolutionary Computation- GECCO 2004|
|Publisher||:||Springer Science & Business Media - 2004-01-01|