To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes.Multiplying the average emission factors in Table 8 and Table 9 for each vehicle by the VMT in the vehiclea#39;s lifetime yields the ... Maintenance and tire costs for sedans and SUVs are estimated by the American Automobile Association (AAA).
|Title||:||Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation Modes in the United States|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2008|