The challenges in ecosystem science encompass a broadening and strengthening of interdisciplinary ties, the transfer of knowledge of the ecosystem across scales, and the inclusion of anthropogenic impacts and human behavior into ecosystem, landscape, and regional models. The volume addresses these points within the context of studies in major ecosystem types viewed as the building blocks of central European landscapes. The research is evaluated to increase the understanding of the processes in order to unite ecosystem science with resource management. The comparison embraces coastal lowland forests, associated wetlands and lakes, agricultural land use, and montane and alpine forests. Techniques for upscaling focus on process modelling at stand and landscape scales and the use of remote sensing for landscape-level model parameterization and testing. The case studies demonstrate ways for ecosystem scientists, managers, and social scientists to cooperate.N64 1000 1500 Generation 2000 2500 Fig. 6. Competition vs. normal EGA run; For fine tuning competition is more effective. Note the waves of the competition run. We have pointed out in  that the local minima of these test functions areanbsp;...
|Title||:||Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN III|
|Author||:||Yuval Davidor, Hans-Paul Schwefel, Reinhard Männer|
|Publisher||:||Springer Science & Business Media - 1994-09-21|