This dissertation argues that risk response systems were developed by merchants to convert uncertainty into quantifiable risk. Four systems are compared: amphora stamps and picti tituli, Pacioli's bookkeeping instructions in his Particularis De Computis et Scripturis, Lloyd's Register, and J. A. Anderson's train orders. Each was designed as a tool to give the user the ability to assess risk at a glance. Each established classifications, standards, and patterns of decision-making. The differences in the kind of data gathered and the needs of the interest groups creating the systems demonstrate how risk is an artifact shaped by culture. For the Roman command economy, risk lay in fraud and the failure to deliver, and its amphora labeling system controlled for these measures. Conversely, in Renaissance bookkeeping methods, the individual merchant made a case to himself and to his community that he had used his money well, keeping a balance and leaving no opportunity for accusation. Lloyd's brokers worked in an expanding market of trade and needed to make decisions about trade voyages in ships of unknown quality. As a result, the Red Register split of 1800 questioned London's ship-building expertise and the qAlq category. Similarly, when new uncertainties were raised by train travel, J. A. Anderson, a Pennsylvania Railroad employee, authored the The Train Wire: A Discussion of the Science of Train Dispatching to establish standard procedures for train orders. His train orders were meant to protect the merchant, the public and the railroad worker against human error by severely limiting the range of decisions to be made by train conductors and engineers. Finally, current developments in nanotechnology in the absence of a coherent risk-response system suggests that science, business and advocacy groups have not yet found a compelling reason to create a common standard of risk.Has Samsung built Pandoraa#39;s Washer? Again, as with the battlesuit, the ... 23 Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been pitched as the possible solution for many problems, including energy transmission. For a while, carbon nanotubes wereanbsp;...
|Title||:||Risk Response Systems|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2008|