In this lucidly-written introduction to the topic, Sylvia Kraemer draws upon her extensive experience in government to develop a useful and powerful framework for thinking about the American approach to shaping and managing scientific innovation. Kraemer suggests that the history of science, technology, and politics is best understood as a negotiation of ongoing tensions between open and closed systems. Open systems depend on universal access to information that is complete, verifiable, and appropriately used. Closed systems, in contrast, are composed of exclusive and often proprietary features, which are designed to control usage. Kraemer shows the promise and limits of open systems in advancing scientific progress as well as the nationas economic vitality.radio: advertising on, 134; difference from Internet communication, 128-129, 134; radio spectrum, 135-137, 173 radio frequencies, 128, 135, 136, 285n31a 286n33 Radio Licensing Act, 128 Radio Shack, 140 radio spectrum, 135-137, 173 railroads, 64, 219 Rand ... 202 Recombinant DNA (IDNA), 202 Redux, 212 Reeve, Christopher, 205 Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 5, 96 Reformation, anbsp;...
|Title||:||Science and Technology Policy in the United States|
|Publisher||:||Rutgers University Press - 2006-06-20|