This volume reviews the ecological effects of road, rail, marine and air transport. The focus ranges from identification of threats and repair of damaging effects to design of future transport systems that minimize environmental degradation. The scope of coverage extends from small ecosystems to the planet as a whole. Experts from a variety of disciplines address the topic, expressing views across the spectrum from deep pessimism to cautious optimism.Hull fouling on small craft: influencing factors and prevalence in locations worldwide 3.1 SMALL CRAFT MARINAS a SOURCES OF ... Most modern marinas consist of floating pontoons held in place by arrays of vertical piles or chains. ... A frequent method for many small craft is to remove them from the water after each short period of use. ... Once fouling assemblages have developed on vessel hulls, they are normally removed via a combination of manual scraping or scrubbing withanbsp;...
|Title||:||The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment|
|Author||:||John Davenport, Julia L. Davenport|
|Publisher||:||Springer Science & Business Media - 2006-06-30|